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icon Front page > News > 澳洲昆士蘭大學柯素翠博士應邀擔任高美館與與新喀里多尼亞棲包屋文化中心合作展覽計畫之策展顧問

澳洲昆士蘭大學柯素翠博士應邀擔任高美館與與新喀里多尼亞棲包屋文化中心合作展覽計畫之策展顧問
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澳洲昆士蘭大學柯素翠博士

應邀擔任高美館與與新喀里多尼亞棲包屋文化中心

合作展覽計畫之策展顧問

 

任教於澳洲昆士蘭大學 (The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia) 英語、媒體研究與藝術史學院 (School of English, Media Studies and Art History) 的柯素翠博士 (Dr. Susan Cochrance),應高雄市立美術館與新喀里多尼亞棲包屋文化中心 (Tjibaou Cultural Centre, New Caledonia) 之邀,將為訂於2007年展出的一項有關當代太平洋藝術的重要展覽擔任策展顧問。這項合作計畫還包含台灣原住民族藝術家與新喀里多尼亞的原住民族卡納克(Kanak)族藝術家的交換駐村創作計畫。柯素翠博士是以當代太平洋藝術的研究而著稱的作者與策展人,自2005年(至2007年)獲聘為昆士蘭大學博士後研究員之後,她已經完成一篇研究專論《美拉尼西亞的藝術與生活》(Art and Life in Melanesia, in press, Cambridge Scholars Press),並與 Max Quanchi 共同主編《獵尋收藏者:澳洲博物館、藝廊與檔案庫的太平洋藝術典藏》 (co-edited, with Max Quanchi, Hunting the Collectors: Pacific Collections in Australian Museums, Art Galleries and Archives, in press, Cambridge Scholars Press)。本次策展顧問的合約由昆士蘭大學的 UniQuest 公司 (UniQuest Pty Limited) 與高雄市立美術館及棲包屋文化中心完成協商與簽約。


附件為柯素翠博士對本計畫背景的概述--〈分享許多的經驗〉(原文與中譯版)。


Dr Susan Cochrane of the School of English, Media Studies and Art History, the University of Queensland, has been invited by the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan, and the Tjibaou Cultural Centre, New Caledonia, to guest curate a major exhibition of contemporary Pacific art in 2007. The collaborative venture includes cultural exchange visits between Indigenous Taiwanese and Kanak artists. Susan, who was awarded the UQ Postdoctoral Fellowship for Women (2005-7), has an established reputation as an author and curator specialising in contemporary Pacific art. Since taking up her Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2005 she has completed a monograph, Art and Life in Melanesia (in press, Cambridge Scholars Press), and co-edited, with Max Quanchi, Hunting the Collectors: Pacific Collections in Australian Museums, Art Galleries and Archives (in press, Cambridge Scholars Press). The consultancy agreement between the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts and the Tjibaou Cultural Centre was negotiated by UniQuest.?

 

附件1

 

SHARING A WORLD OF EXPERIENCES

The 2006-7 artist exchange project and the 2007 exhibition, Who are we? Where do we come from? Where are we going?, are joint ventures between the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan, and the Tjibaou Cultural Centre of New Caledonia. Cochrane was invited to be the consultant on this project and guest curator of the exhibition, which will present contemporary art by Aboriginal Taiwanese and Pacific artists to the Taiwanese audience. The aim of the joint venture is to heighten the visibility of the contemporary cultures of Austronesian indigenous peoples across the Asia-Pacific region.

Australia’s increasingly close engagement with Pacific Island nations creates a need for a better understanding of a complicated region; this is also true for Taiwan and New Caledonia. While issues of trade and politics dominate post-colonial engagements, in the cultural arena links are only sporadic and significant cross-cultural relationships are lacking. The cultural exchange and exhibition project takes the initiative of rectifying the lack of cultural exchanges, especially among the indigenous peoples of the region, in the interests of increased and reciprocal exposure to the art community of the Asia-Pacific region.

Taiwan and New Caledonia are two island countries emerging as nations and taking their place in the world. They are located on opposite sides of the Pacific; Taiwan has a Japanese-Chinese colonial history, while New Caledonia was dominated by France. As there are virtually no contacts between Taiwan and New Caledonia, the people and their cultures are unknown to each other and thus have low visibility in the public imagination.? Many Aboriginal Taiwanese were concerned with questions of cultural identity, both as a minority indigenous people afraid of the disintegration of their special culture by pressures of urbanisation and globalisation, and because of the rather perilous position of Taiwan in world politics. Across the Pacific, Indigenous peoples are also confronted by the same issues and tensions and the exhibition provides a forum to explore the set of complex issues evoked by the theme.

Austronesia means ‘Southern Islands’ and Austronesians are the peoples of successive diasporas that spread through the Malay peninsula, across the Pacific and Indian oceans from southern China and Taiwan several millennia ago. Austronesian language speakers arrived in Micronesia (tiny islands), Polynesia (small islands) and some parts of Melanesia (black islands). The genealogies of early Austronesian peoples are too far back to be recounted, their heroes and epics lost to history, their ancient culture only known from archaeological traces such as Lapita sites. More recent ancestors of Taiwan’s Aboriginal people, like other Austronesian-speaking people throughout the Pacific, sailed in high-prowed canoes, wore facial tattoo, grew taro on terraced hillsides, created monumental sculptures and ./ContentPage\20086317212174\images\ that venerated ancestors and practiced forms of social organisation familiar to Pacific Islanders. The pre-history and recent history of Taiwan’s Aboriginal people resonates with many Pacific Islands societies, who understand all the flows and undercurrents through their own people’s experiences.

Over the past two centuries, indigenous Taiwanese and Pacific peoples suffered through invasion and colonisation of their land, enforced dispossession, marginalisation, loss of language and culture. As Yulin Lee wrote,
Like many Asian countries, Taiwan has built its dynamic present upon the turmoil of its past. The island in the past three hundred years has experienced Spanish and Dutch influence, Chinese rule, Japanese colonialism and western modernisation. Layers of legacies and the post-war political environment make identity not only a complicated but also a highly contested issue in contemporary Taiwan.
This pattern of history is familiar to Pacific Islands and Aboriginal Australian societies, except that the domination of indigenous Taiwanese did not happen in a Western sphere of influence, but in one dominated by the Asian powers of Japan and China. The East-West divide created in the colonial era separated Austronesian people’s inter-connections with each other. Western powers – England, France, Germany and America – further divided the Pacific region into zones under their control, which led to uneven development and the penetration of either Anglophone or Francophone cultures in Pacific countries. Political frontiers and language barriers effectively diminished communication and cultural exchange between Austronesian societies.

What is the lifestyle and culture of Austronesian peoples today? Although they are now less than 2% of the population of Taiwan, indigenous people are on the path to recognition and respect of their particular cultural identity and proper place in Taiwanese society. The same resurgence of cultural identity and social recognition is happening across the Pacific, but each country has to come to terms with its particular ethnic mix and form new Oceanic societies appropriate to the modern world. Exhibitions are an effective medium to challenge ideas and expectations and for audiences to imagine the twists of time and fate that led to their present self-identity and place in the world.

Across the Pacific, from Taiwan to Tahiti, we are neighbours - but we are also strangers as we have little understanding of each other’s cultures and few tools to enable us to interpret and appreciate the people of our neighbourhood. We are told that understanding our region is a national priority, but too often language and cultural differences make this task seem too difficult. The KMFA – CCT exhibition project is a visionary approach that seeks to establish an equal and democratic space for the exploration of art. As Huang Zhuan commented that, “Contemporary art is the product of the western cultural system in the twentieth century. . . [which] for a long time seriously prevented contemporary art in the non-western world form expressing its own cultures”. But increasingly, leading artists from Asian and Pacific countries, including Taiwan and New Caledonia, have participated in prestigious international exhibitions with the philosophy that, “We see contemporary art as a cultural resource and treasure shared by all human beings. We do not regard it as a western cultural patent as we do not, in political, economic and social realities, equate modernisation with westernisation”.

Despite the higher profile Asian contemporary art has achieved in Australia since the 1990s, the display and appreciation of Aboriginal Taiwanese art, as well as the recognition of indigenous Pacific artists, has been a relatively neglected area both in the recognition of contemporary artists in exhibitions and publications and with opportunities for cultural exchange. In Australia the Pacific artists and curators have grappled with the dilemma of how to represent indigenous art in art museums which have a predominantly western-oriented format. How do we re-frame this representation in ways that do not position indigenous art merely as the antithesis or as the analogue of western art? Do indigenous artists really fit into the framework of a Biennale of contemporary art and other constructs favoured by the international artworld? Are the same aesthetic values and descriptive terms applicable and appropriate to indigenous art as to ‘mainstream’ art? While some of these problems have been raised at regional and international forums like the conferences associated with the Asia-Pacific Triennial and Noumea Biennale of Contemporary Art, it is a field that requires much more research and interpretation. (by Dr. Susan Cochrane)

 

 

References
Agence de Developpement de la Culture Kanak, 2002. Catalogue Noumea Biennale of Contemporary Art. Noumea: ADCK
Lee, Yulin. 1999. ‘Taiwan: an island of legacies’. Catalogue, Beyond the Future: the Third Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art. Brisbane:Queensland Art Gallery.
Zhuan, Huang. 1999. ‘Co-existing with differences: the new reality of contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region’. Beyond the Future: Papers from the Conference of the Third Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art. Brisbane: Queensland Art Gallery.

The theme is taken from Paul Gauguin’s painting ‘Where do we come from? Who are we? Where are we going?’ (1897-8). At the time Gauguin lived on Hiva Oa in the Marquesas. He had abandoned imitative art in favour of expression through colour and symbolism. In his book Noa Noa he expressed his search for a new way of life and recognised a turning point in Polynesian culture.

Yulin Lee. “Taiwan: An island of legacies”. 1999, p. 146

Huang Zhuan, 1999. p.62

 

 

附件2

 

分享許多的經驗

本項2006~7年的藝術家交換計畫與2007年的展覽—我們是誰?從哪裡來?將往何處去? —是高雄市立美術館與新喀里多尼亞棲包屋文化中心的共同計畫。柯素翠博士受邀擔任本計畫案的顧問與展覽案的客座策展人,此展覽計畫將台灣與太平洋地區原住民族藝術家所創作的當代藝術作品呈現給台灣的觀眾。本項聯合計畫的目標則是提高亞太區域南島原住民族當代文化的能見度。

澳洲與太平洋島國與日俱增的密切交往產生了希望對此複雜區域更多瞭解的需求,此情形對台灣與新喀里多尼亞而言亦然。然而貿易與政治議題主導了後殖民時代的聯繫,在文化的舞台上僅有零星的連結,欠缺顯著的跨文化的聯繫。這次的文化交流與展覽計畫率先修正了這種缺乏文化交流的狀況,特別是在此區域的原住民族之間的文化交流,以求增加並相互在亞太區域藝術社群曝光的機會。

台灣與新喀里多尼亞是兩個島國,致力成為獨立國家,並在世界上佔有一席之地。它們分別位於太平洋的(南北)兩側,台灣有日本與中國殖民歷史,而新喀里多尼亞則曾被法國統治。由於台灣與新喀里多尼亞並無實質上的聯繫,對彼此的人民與文化都十分陌生,在大眾印象中也缺乏可見度。許多台灣原住民族關心文化認同的問題,一方面身為少數族群擔憂自身的特殊文化在全球化與都市化的壓力下會崩解,另一方面則是因為台灣在世界政治局勢中的危險處境。橫跨整個太平洋地區的原住民族也都面臨同樣的問題與緊張關係,而這項展覽則為這一系列從展覽主題所引發的複雜議題提供了一個探索的平台。

南島 (Austronesia) 意思為「南方的島嶼」,南島語族 (Austronesians) 則是指數千年前由中國南方與台灣地區不斷遷徙擴散、分布於馬來半島並橫跨太平洋與印度洋的民族。說著南島語的人們抵達密克羅尼西亞 (Micronesia,「微小的島」之意)、玻里尼西亞 (Polynesia,「小的島」之意)與部分的美拉尼西亞 (Melanesia,「黑色的島」之意)。早期南島語族的系譜已太遙遠而無法回溯、他們的英雄與史詩已消失於歷史、他們的祖先文化僅能從考古學的痕跡得知,如拉比陶 (Lapita) 遺址。台灣原住民族較近時期的祖先,如同太平洋區域其他南島語族的人們,乘著高船首的獨木舟、臉上佈著刺青、在梯形的山坡地種著芋頭、創作祖靈崇拜的巨大雕塑與形象,並實行著與太平洋島國人民類似的社會組織形態,台灣原住民族的史前時代與近期歷史與許多太平洋島國社群共振著,這些太平洋島國社群是從他們自己民族的經驗來理解所有的脈絡。

在過去二個世紀以來,台灣與太平洋的原住民族遭受著原有的土地受侵略和殖民統治、被強迫驅逐、邊緣化、語言與文化的喪失等苦痛。如李玉玲所寫:
就如許多亞洲國家,台灣在經歷過往的混亂之後,已建立充滿活力的現在。這個島嶼在過去三百年來受到西班牙與荷蘭的影響、中國的統治、日本的殖民與西方的現代化歷程。文化遺產的層疊與戰後政治環境使得身分認同在台灣成為一個不但複雜而且備受爭論的議題。
這種歷史模式類似於太平洋島國與澳洲原住民社會,除了台灣原住民的統治權並非支配於西半球的勢力之下,而是受制於屬於亞洲勢力的日本與中國。在殖民時代所創造的東西方分水領隔離了南島語族人民的互動,西方強權—英國、法國、德國和美國—進一步將太平洋區域分成各自控制的小區域,導致了不均衡的發展以及英國風或法國風文化滲透到太平洋國家。政治領域和語言障礙很快地破壞了南島族群之間的溝通與文化交流。

在今日,南島民族的生活型態與文化為何呢?在台灣,原住民族佔台灣人口不到2%,他們正致力於認知並尊重自身特別的文化身分與在台灣社會中的適當位置;同樣的文化身分與社會認同的復興業正發生在太平洋地區,但是每一個國家必須協調自身獨特的種族混合體,並形成新的大洋洲社會,以適應現代世界。展覽是挑戰這些想法與期待極為有用的媒介,對觀眾而言,也可在其中想像時間與命運交織下所產生的現今南島民族的自我認同與世界地位。

橫越整個太平洋地區,從台灣到大溪地,我們都是鄰居,然而,我們也是陌生人,因為對彼此文化缺乏瞭解,而且也甚少工具可使我們理解並欣賞我們的鄰居,雖然我們被告知國家的要務是對自己區域的瞭解,但此工作卻常常被語言與文化差異所困。高美館—棲包屋文化中心的合作展覽計畫是一個有夢想的方法,嘗試為藝術的探索建立一個平等的與自由民主的空間。就如黃專所評論的,「當代藝術是二十世紀西方文化系統的產物,…長期以來嚴重地阻礙當代藝術在非西方世界的形態中表達自己的文化。」在亞太地區包括台灣與新喀里多尼亞的頂尖藝術家,已經參與世界知名的國際展覽,並抱持如下觀點,「我們視當代藝術為一種全人類分享的文化資源與寶藏,而不認為它是西方文化的專利,就如同在政治、經濟與社會等現實面,我們不將現代化等同於西化。」

儘管在澳洲自1990年代以來亞洲當代藝術已具有高知名度,然而,在展覽、出版品對當代藝術家的認識方面與在文化交流的機會方面,對台灣原住民藝術的展現與欣賞,以及對太平洋原住民藝術家的認識,相對地是被忽略的區塊。在澳洲,太平洋地區藝術家與策展人已經解決了兩難的狀況:如何在強勢的西方導向形態的美術館表現原住民藝術?我們如何重新架構這種呈現方式,在其中原住民藝術不被當作僅是西方藝術的對照物或相似物?原住民藝術家真的能合於國際藝壇偏好的雙年展或其他形態的框架嗎?「主流」藝術的美學價值與表達術語對原住民藝術同樣適合且適當嗎?當一些諸如此類的問題已經在如亞太當代藝術三年展、努美亞當代藝術雙年展等區域性與國際性論壇被提出時,這確實是一個需要更多研究與闡釋的領域。
(文/柯素翠 博士)

參考書目
卡納克文化發展處,2002,《努美亞當代藝術雙年展》專輯,努美亞:卡納克文化發展處。(Agence de Developpement de la Culture Kanak, 2002. Catalogue Noumea Biennale of Contemporary Art. Noumea: ADCK)

李玉玲,1999,〈台灣:遺產之島〉,《超越未來,第三屆亞太當代藝術三年展》專輯,布里斯本:昆士蘭藝廊。(Lee, Yulin. 1999. ‘Taiwan: an island of legacies’. Catalogue, Beyond the Future: the Third Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art. Brisbane:Queensland Art Gallery.)

黃專,1999,〈與差異共存:亞太地區當代藝術的新現實〉,《超越未來,第三屆亞太當代藝術三年展研討會論文集》,布里斯本:昆士蘭藝廊。
Zhuan, Huang. 1999. ‘Co-existing with differences: the new reality of contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region’. Beyond the Future: Papers from the Conference of the Third Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art. Brisbane: Queensland Art Gallery.

這個主題是來自保羅‧高更(Paul Gauguin)的畫作〈我們是誰?從哪裡來?將往何處去?〉(1897-8),那時高更住在馬奎斯 (Marquesas) 的西瓦瓦島 (Hiva Oa) ,已放棄模倣藝術而偏好顏色與象徵的表現。在他的書 “Noa Noa” 中,他表達了他對一種新生活方式的追尋,並在玻里尼西亞文化中發現了轉捩點。

李玉玲,〈台灣:遺產之島〉,1999,頁146。

黃專,1999,頁62。

 

 

 

 


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